Mapping a B2B Customer Journey is a handful. There are so many variables to keep in mind that it becomes overwhelming. A customer journey in B2B are longer, more complex and it has some domain-specific touchpoints and stages that you should know before diving in mapping.
At UXPressia, we didn't want to leave this stone unturned so we came up with this guide. Here, we will cover the key differences between mapping customer journeys for B2C, B2B, and B2E. As well as some pitfalls you should avoid.
And at the end, you will get you a free CJM template to map your B2B customer journey! You will be able to download it in PDF, change it online, or get it in Power Point! 😉
- 1 1. Conduct a Research
- 2 2. Personas in B2B Customer Journey
- 3 3. B2B Customer Journey Process
- 4 4. Take Action
- 5 Final Word
1. Conduct a Research
Now, researching a business market is so much different from researching a B2C. You have to pick a radically different approach here. And here are some points to keep in mind:
Businesses are less open than consumers. In most cases, you will have to convince them to share intel with you. If we take B2E, then squeezing information becomes close to impossible.
A B2B research has to be a lot more profound so hypothesis will not work here. However, given the previous statement, you will probably start with hypothesis anyway.
It is harder to define needs, pain-points, and decision makers due to a complex network of stakeholders from different departments.
There's a larger geographical spread for B2B so it's unlikely for you to have face-to-face interviews or focus groups.
But a considerably smaller sample size will make it up for the pains mentioned above.
What information to collect
The nature of data you're going to look for your B2B customer journey is quite different from data for B2C. So for the latter, you want to know the expectations, pain-points, and motivations of your target audience. But with B2B customer journey, knowing expectations and pain-points is so not enough. Let's see, what information you should collect during the research:
- Business model
- Organization structure
- Purchasing & other processes
- Their customers and competitors
- Levels of influence of each stakeholder
- Hierarchy of needs
Note that this is by far not the complete list. When doing a research, you should think of every single detail that can impact your B2B customer journey and lead you to priceless insights.
Sources of data
Finally, once you know what you are looking for and what to expect, it's time to identify what sources of information you will use. For a B2B research, there are a couple of well-tried sources.
- CRM data.
- Phone interview with existing customers.
- Online search.
- Existing knowledge from sales and customer relations departments.
Of course, options will vary depending on what kind of business and customers you have. But this is something you can start with.
2. Personas in B2B Customer Journey
When it comes to creating a B2B persona, the key difference from B2C is a number of decision makers you will have to deal with. Of course, if we're taking small or medium biz, it can be that there is just a couple of individuals who make the decision.
But once we move one step up the ladder, the number of stakeholders starts to grow. You will have all sorts of representatives from different departments who will participate in the process of decision making. Each will have their own expectations, demands, and pain-points.
How to Deal with Complexity?
Making a corresponding persona for each stakeholder is probably the ideal option, but you can start with something simpler and more generic. You can take the whole business and treat it as your persona.
The benefit of this approach is simplicity and speed. In a situation where there is no time to develop 10 full-blown personas, a "business" persona is a fine workaround. And once you got enough resources and data, you can start splitting it up into separate personas.
Another approach you can take is to break down this hoard of stakeholders into groups. It can be:
- Informers - individuals who find your product and spread the word about it within their company.
- Decision makers - are the ones who decide whether they want to use your service or not.
- End users - the actual people who will use your product.
The main challenge here is to figure out how much of an influence each party has.
Some may say that business personas are more rational than consumer personas. This isn't entirely true. People are irrational and it's their nature. However, there are many constraints in business that make the process of decision making less irrational.
So if we take each stakeholder individually, we will see notes of irrationality. But, once they're in one room, they will have to appeal to rationality in order to come to a decision.
Also, if in B2C the buyer persona is often the end user, B2B customer journey is a great example of a buyer vs. user persona division.
What to describe
Depending on the type of a particular persona, you will want to pay attention to different things. Thus, for informer personas, you will want to pay special attention to what channels of information they use. And for decision makers, you will want to focus on their higher-level goals and pain-points.
But the trickiest part will be to map all relations between each party to figure out whether informers and decision makers are the end users as well. Or if how much of influence informers and end users have on the decision makers. So you may even create a separate section in your persona for this.
3. B2B Customer Journey Process
A B2B customer journey is typically longer than a journey in B2C. Not only is it longer, it is often more complicated considering the number of people taking part in the process. Let's take a look at some aspects of a customer journey in B2B and B2E and how those are different from a typical consumer journey.
Unlike it is for customer journeys in B2C, stages for a B2B or B2E customer journey have some extra steps that you don't want to miss. They are critical to the entire journey and can be so-called moments of truth.
So for a typical consumer journey we have stages like Aware, Research, Consider, Buy, and Use. Here's how a B2B journey would look like:
- Contact & Request a Demo
- Make a Decision
- Contract Negotiations
- Delivery & Integration
And this isn't the entire list. Depending on your business and your customer expectations and processes there might be stages like Trial, Conducting an audit, Legal procedures and so on. At some point they can fork, loop or go back. For example, a legal issue at Contract Negotiations phase may push the whole process back to the Consideration stage.
To make it all worse, different decision makers will come into play during certain stages and they will have serious influence. Well, that is obvious. But, and there's always a but, at some particular stages there will be multiple decision makers having quite opposite opinions. For instance, before making the decision, an IT director is happy with how your product fits in the current infrastructure, but the legal procurement team has their doubts.
So, to minimize risks (if that's remotely possible) you can mark stages and phases where interests of different parties intersect. This way you will know where you need to go an extra mile in order for the journey to be less bumpy and your chances for success a lot higher.
There is a number of B2B-specific touchpoints that you must consider when mapping your customers' journey. And not just because businesses may use different approaches and channels when looking for solutions. Which they do. Here are a couple of touchpoints you can find in your B2B customer journey:
- Product Demo
- Sales Meetings
- Business Conferences
...and a whole bunch of others. No matter how many touchpoints you find, all of them must end up on your map.
4. Take Action
Once you B2B customer journey map is ready, what to do next?
Mapping a B2C customer journey alone isn't particularly easy (not to mention it's not even effective) but doable. Being a lone ranger while mapping a B2B journey is just insane and counterproductive. Ideally, you should involve representatives from all teams across your entire company. Front-line staff, back-end folks - everyone. If it's not possible to let them participate in the process of mapping, at least make sure they can have a look at the complete map.
Your map cannot, I repeat, it cannot end up collecting dust on a shelf. It must be put to the test right away. Whether you come up with a list of ideas, features, or recommendations, a CJM must work for you. Not the other way around.
And, of course, mapping B2B customer journey isn't a one-time activity. It is a process that once started must go on for as long as your company functions. So, depending on your case, make sure you always get back to your map and update it according to the new data, changes in your company's internal processes or changes happening on the market.
As you can see, mapping a B2B customer journey map is a tough row to hoe. But once armed with our tips and tools, it's pretty manageable. Speaking of tools, UXPressia has quite a handful of those suited for all possible B2B customer journey map scenarios. With our Customer Journey Mapping tool you can create, update, share and export all your journey (and personas!) in a matter of minutes.
And just as I promised, we created a B2B customer journey mapping template that is absolutely free to use - here's a link to Power Point template. Make sure you check it before you start your next B2B CJM project! 😉